Evolution in the Fourth Round
According to theosophy, our earth globe is one of twelve globes that make up the earth planetary chain. These twelve interlocking spheres are composed of different grades of consciousness-substance, but interpenetrate to some degree and form a unitary group. Our own globe (globe D) is the most material globe, and exists on the lowest of the seven planes of our hierarchy. Each globe exists on seven subplanes, from material to spiritual (these being relative terms). The higher, nonphysical realms of our own globe, along with all the higher globes of the earth-chain are beyond the range of our physical senses.
Schematic representation of the twelve globes of a planetary chain.
A planetary lifespan or manvantara lasts 4.32 billion years, and is followed by a planetary rest period or pralaya of equal length. A manvantara is divided into seven rounds or great tidal waves of life. Every round repeats on a higher scale the evolutionary work of the preceding round, and brings into full expression one of the seven element-principles. The first three and a half rounds comprise the arc of descent, during which the globes and their inhabitants undergo a process of progressive materialization. The second half of a manvantara comprises the arc of ascent, characterized by etherealization and spiritualization. Our physical globe originated some two billion years ago in an ethereal state, and gradually grew more dense and material until a few million years ago when the ascending arc began.
Ten kingdoms or life-waves evolve in and on the globes of a planetary chain, and indeed compose them. They are the three elemental kingdoms, the mineral, plant, animal, and human kingdoms, and the three spiritual or dhyani-chohanic kingdoms. At the end of a planetary manvantara, the monads or consciousness-centres comprising the life-waves return to their spiritual home, enriched with their evolutionary experiences.
On each globe in each round, the monads in each life-wave manifest in suitable forms and pass through seven main stages of evolutionary development. In the human kingdom, these seven stages are called root-races or humanities. The root-races overlap: a new race begins to emerge in the middle of the previous one. The same monadic individuals embody in each root-race, with the exception of those who are unable to advance sufficiently to continue into the next round, who enter an early ‘nirvana’ of low degree.
On any globe at any time, one kingdom dominates, and the bulk of its monads embody on that globe. Each kingdom stays on a globe for many millions of years, and passes seven times through all the globes in succession during each embodiment of a planetary chain. When a life-wave departs from a globe, it leaves behind its most advanced representatives (also called shishtas, or ‘remainders’). When it returns to that globe in the next round, the incoming monads reawaken these astral root-types, which begin to materialize and differentiate into a variety of stocks appropriate to that kingdom’s evolution.
Theosophy teaches that ‘The Universe is worked and guided from within outwards’ (SD 1:174), and that ‘all things had their origin in spirit – evolution having originally begun from above and proceeded downward, instead of the reverse, as taught in the Darwinian theory’ (SD 2:170/190). Physical forms originate from astral prototypes, which are themselves reflections of the spiritual archetypes or ‘ideas’ left from previous evolutionary cycles. Far from being a random process, evolution is the result of the impulses arising in the inner constitution of worlds and entities. It involves the building of ever-fitter vehicles for the expression of the latent powers of the spiritual monad.
The following brief sketch deals mainly with the evolution of humanity on globe D during the present, fourth round of the earth’s evolution.
The fourth round began some 320 million years ago towards the end of the Precambrian era, a period marked by tremendous geological upheavals. The first of the seven root-races or humanities was a race of astral entities and appeared in mid-Paleozoic times, some 150 million years ago. As the seven classes of human monads from globe C started to arrive on globe D, they awakened the corresponding classes of shishtas, which began to multiply in number. The first subrace of the first root-race therefore consisted of seven groups, seven embryonic astral humanities, evolving on seven different zones of the first continent, situated around the north pole.
Theosophy therefore teaches ‘the simultaneous evolution of seven human groups on seven different portions of our globe’ (SD 2:1). Strictly speaking, it teaches a modified polygenesis.
For, while it assigns to humanity a oneness of origin, in so far that its forefathers or ‘creators’ were all divine beings – though of different classes or degrees of perfection in their hierarchy – men were nevertheless born on seven different centres of the continent of that period. ... [T]heir potentialities and mental capabilities, outward or physical forms, and future characteristics, were very different. ... Some superior, others inferior, to suit the karma of the various reincarnating monads which could not be all of the same degree of purity in their last births in other worlds. This accounts for the difference of races ... (SD 2:249)
The earth on which the first race lived was more ethereal than it is today, but relatively hard and condensed in comparison with those nonselfconscious ‘human’ protoplasts. They had huge translucent or transparent bodies, ovoid though somewhat fluid in form, with no bones or organs, and no hair or skin. They slowly grew more solid, but remained ethereal until the end.
The race was sexless and propagated by fission: a large portion of the body separated itself and grew into a duplicate of its parent, much as happens with living cells today. In contrast to the huge and highly ethereal cells of the first race, our physical bodies today begin their existence as a microscopic cell or egg, a speck of gelatinous protoplasm, which slowly hardens and grows into the human form.
The second, Hyperborean root-race (a continuation of the first) was semi-astral, but grew denser and more opaque with each passing age. Towards its end, it became more gelatinous and filamentoid in structure, and developed the rudimentary beginnings of bones and organs, hair and skin. Although still more or less ovoid in form, it began to show the first outlines of the later human form. However, towards its end, its bodies passed through many curious, part-animal forms.
The second race was asexual and reproduced by gemmation or budding, a method of reproduction still found in certain unicellular organisms (e.g. certain bacteria, yeasts, and protozoans). This was a repetition in the small of the method of reproduction of the first race. A swelling would appear on the body of one of these entities, and as it grew it became constricted near the point of junction with the parent body. Eventually, the remaining filament would break, thus freeing the bud, which then grew into another individual similar to its parent. At about the midpoint of the second race, these buds increased in number, and became what might be called ‘spores’ or ‘seeds’. At certain seasons many of these buds would leave the parent body, as do the spores or seeds of plants today. Many might perish, but many others would successfully grow into beings with bodies like those of the parents which gave them birth.
The first two races were not fully human as they had no selfconscious minds. Their consciousness was like that of someone in a daze or deep daydream. They were guided by spiritual instinct, and were mentally much like little children.
Early third root-race
The third, Lemurian root-race appeared during the Triassic period of the Mesozoic era (which began some 44 million years ago). The jelly-like substance of the second race had now become tender flesh composed of cells. Some of the filamentoid parts grew more cartilaginous, and finally became bones, and others became the muscles, nervous system, and blood vessels. The nuclei that existed in the bodies of the second race condensed into true organs. The evolution of physical humans out of the astral races of the early Lemurian age can be likened to the materialization of ‘spirits’ (astral entities) in the seance room.
The early third root-race was hermaphrodite or androgynous. This method of reproduction is still found in certain representatives of the lower kingdoms, e.g. in most flowering plants and in invertebrates such as worms, snails, and slugs. Practically all antiquity taught that mankind must have had bisexual ancestors if for no other reason than that each sex possesses rudiments of the reproductive organs of the other sex.
In the earliest stages of the third race reproduction took place by budding, which developed into ‘egg-laying’: vital cells were exuded from the outer parts of the body, and collected together to form huge ovoid aggregates or eggs. To start with, the drops of vital fluid were exuded from nearly all parts of the body. Later a single large cell was exuded from a functional part of the organism, which was the root of the later reproductive organs.
Egg-laying is still found in birds and certain reptiles today, and even in humans the method of reproduction is still essentially the same. The human germ cell is an egg, though microscopic in size in comparison with the large eggs of the third race, and it is incubated in the womb, within a protecting wall of solid flesh and bone, rather than developing outside the body. The period of ‘incubation’ is now nine months rather than several years, and the new-born babe is not as independent as the ‘newly hatched’ infant of the third race.
The first, second, and earliest third races did not eat as we do now, but took material into the body for nutrition by osmosis, in much in the same way as our lungs draw nutrition from the air.
The first root-race and much of the second knew no death as we understand it; each generation melted into the next. Towards the end of the second race, its individuals fell asleep, as it were, and faded out, and this was the beginnings of what we now call death. With the third root-race, death became the rule, since the bodies became sufficiently solidified and individualized to die when their store of vital energy had been exhausted.
Origin of the animals
The beginning of the fourth round some 320 million years ago coincided with the appearance of the first multicellular organisms or metazoans in the fossil record. But they were relatively few compared to the incredible proliferation of marine organisms that occurred in the early Cambrian (some 70 million years later). Since the ‘Cambrian explosion’, almost no new basic anatomical designs (or phyla) have appeared in the animal world. This sudden radiation resulted from the reawakening of the astral shishtas or root-types by the monads arriving on our globe from globe C – their numbers being relatively few to start with but swelling rapidly as time went on.
From the start of the fourth round until the midpoint of the planetary life-cycle, some 4.5 million years ago, the evolutionary trend was downwards into matter, resulting in a profusion of new species, which developed the fundamental designs activated at the start of the round into a variety of increasingly specialized forms. However, the middle of the cycle marked the beginning of the ascending arc towards spirit, and henceforth more and more animal monads will tend to pass into nirvanic rest as they will not be able to evolve sufficiently along psychological and spiritual lines. The midpoint of the fourth round also marked the ‘closing of the door into the human kingdom’ – meaning that no more animal monads can enter the human kingdom during the rest of the planetary manvantara, except for certain ape and higher simian monads.
The first ethereal representatives of all the stocks below the mammals – the birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, and invertebrates – originated mainly in the preceding (third) globe-round, many hundreds of millions of years ago. The higher mammals originated from mankind in the present globe-round, during the latter part of the second root-race and the early part of the third root-race, in the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic. Ethereal, prehuman mankind ‘threw off’ from itself the germs or seeds of the future animal stocks by the process of budding or gemmation described above. If the vital germs or buds fell from the portion of the parent body which had become the seat of the reproductive organs, they would reproduce a second human, but if they fell from some other part of the body, they would often, if the environment was favourable, grow into the beginning of new animate stocks, which then proceeded to develop and specialize along their own lines.
In those remote times, as today, many of the atoms, molecules, and cells composing the human body were guests, drawn to those bodies by karma, and thereby helping to build them. After residing in the body for a time, they leave and their place is take by others. Some of the vital cells thrown off by early humans were used by entities that evolved into the higher mammals. H.P. Blavatsky says that the drops of vital energy which oozed out of the human body were scattered far and wide, and ‘used by nature for the production of the first mammal-animal forms. Evolution is an eternal cycle of becoming, we are taught; and nature never leaves an atom unused’ (SD 2:170).
In those early days, before the selfconscious intelligence of the third race had begun to unfold, the dominance of the human life-fluid or soul-essence over the cells and life-atoms composing their primitive, more ethereal bodies was far weaker than it is today. Consequently, when any of the cells freed itself from that control, it instinctively followed the path of self-expression, as each cell is a storehouse of unexpressed types. A further reason why the cells developed along their own lines was that all entities were then running down the arc of descent, which is the period of the evolution of matter and the involution of spirit, and therefore all stocks from the ‘human’ down were under the natural urge to evolve new bodily forms.
The bodies of the animals physicalized before those of ethereal humanity, and the androgynous animals likewise separated into male and female before the human stock.
Later third root-race
Hermaphroditism died out in the middle period of the third race. Individuals began to be born with the predominant characteristics of one or the other sex, until finally only unisexual individuals were produced. With the separation of the sexes, the present method of reproduction ensued. It was at about the same time that the awakening of our selfconscious minds began and that human bodies became fully developed and physical. The early stages of human evolution are recapitulated by the growing embryo, and it is interesting to note that the distinction of sex does not appear until the third month of growth.
The Lemurians were endowed with a third eye at the top of the head. It was in fact the first eye, the two front eyes developing later. It is also known as the eye of Shiva, the wisdom eye, or the deva eye. It was originally an organ of both physical and spiritual vision. With the development of increasingly material bodies and the separation of the sexes, the eye began to lose its power. It gradually petrified and finally disappeared from the outward anatomy of humans in the middle of the third subrace of the Atlanteans. The remaining witness to this eye is the pineal gland, a pea-sized organ in the brain, situated beneath the posterior part of the corpus callosum. Every class of species was originally hermaphrodite and one-eyed. Today, certain cold-blooded vertebrates have an outgrowth of the pineal gland which forms an eyelike structure (known as the pineal eye) at the top of the head. This eye is now atrophied, as in humans.
Even today the third eye is partially functional in humans as an organ of spiritual vision, but it has a difficult time, mainly due to the activity of the two eyes that superseded it. G. de Purucker writes:
As time passes the two eyes will grow slowly more perfect in function, but will recede in importance; and the ‘first eye’ will come again into its own. It did function in other rounds, during the third and even the second, weakly during the first; because during the first round the monads which we call egos now were then spiritual and semi-spiritual beings, as it were in a samadhic condition on this plane ... (Man in Evolution, 203)
The pineal gland is destined to function again in the distant future as the organ of our seventh and highest sense.
Humanity’s selfconscious mind began to awaken once our physical forms had become sufficiently developed to express our latent mental powers. This important event is referred to as the ‘incarnation of the manasaputras’ (or ‘sons of mind’). These spiritual entities are our own higher selves (our higher human or manasaputric monad), and passed through the human stage in a previous cycle of evolution. With selfconscious intelligence came the power of choice and free will, and as humans gradually sank further into matter, a struggle emerged between the spiritual and the animal in man.
The awakening of mind began among the karmically ready stocks during the fifth subrace of the third root-race in the later Mesozoic era, some 18.5 million years ago. However, manas (the fifth principle) will not be fully developed until the end of the fifth round. By the end of the seventh round, our lower human monads will have become higher human monads, and will enter the lowest of the three dhyani-chohanic kingdoms, assuming that we run the race successfully. It will then be our duty to act as manasaputras for the human monads in the next manvantara, which are currently animal monads.
Selfconscious human individuals began to appear even in the first, second, and early third root-races. In the middle of the third race, before the general manasaputric ‘descent’, the selfconscious forerunners of the human race, under the influence of the spiritual consciousness or ‘silent watcher’ of our globe, gathered together to form a focus of spiritual and intellectual light. This was the origin of the Brotherhood of Adepts, which has been in existence ever since. The adepts or mahatmas are the guides and helpers of the human race, and the custodians of the ageless wisdom.
The last two subraces of the Lemurians (or Lemuro-Atlanteans) built cities, cultivated the arts and sciences, and sowed far and wide the first seeds of civilization under the guidance of their divine instructors and their own awakened minds. Lemuria was centred in the Pacific Ocean. Most of it sank towards the end of the Cretaceous period (which ended about 8 million years ago).
The fourth, Atlantean root-race developed bodies far coarser than our own, because it was in the middle of that race, some 4.5 million years ago, that the bottom of the arc of descent was reached and matter reached its fullest development. Since then the matter of both the globe and its inhabitants has begun to slowly etherealize and become more refined, and this process will continue as we progress along the ascending arc, until the end of the seventh round, when the globe will have returned to the highly ethereal state that prevailed in the first round.
The Atlanteans produced some of the most brilliant civilizations of a purely material character that this globe has seen. On the whole, however, they were unspiritual, with strong material instincts. Many of them worshipped the dark and evil powers of nature, and misused their innate psychic powers for selfish ends – practices which were opposed by the wiser among them.
The bulk of Atlantis was submerged and destroyed in the Miocene epoch, following which the fifth race began to increase rapidly in numbers. Portions of Atlantis, however, lingered on into later times. The large island of Ruta in the Pacific Ocean sank some 850,000 years ago, the smaller island of Daitya in the Indian Ocean sank some 270,000 years ago, and Poseidonis, a small Atlantic island about the size of Ireland, was submerged 11½ thousand years ago.
Size, senses, and speech
‘Humans’ are said to have been of titanic size during the early races and to have gradually diminished in stature ever since, a process which can also be seen in the animal and plant kingdoms. The bodies of the first two races were over a hundred feet tall. The third root-race was 60 feet tall initially, and 20 to 25 feet at the time of Lemuria’s destruction. The Atlanteans in their heyday were 20 to 30 feet tall. Man’s size was reduced from 15 to 10 or 12 feet ever since the third subrace of the our present (fifth) humanity, and has continued to decline ever since.
The relatively solidified bodies of the late second and early third races could conceivably have left fossils, and this is even more true of the later third race and the fourth race. But since then, tremendous volcanic, seismic, and other cataclysmic events have taken place; lands have sunk beneath the oceans and new lands have been upheaved in many parts of the globe. Only a few fossils are likely to have survived these events. Moreover, cremation is said to have been universal until some 80-100,000 years ago. However, many remains of humans up to 12 feet (4 metres) tall have been found in recent times, and there are also intriguing reports of semihuman/apelike creatures from 7 to 15 feet tall existing in remote areas till the present day (see The ape-ancestry myth, section 4).
At the present stage of evolution, humans have five senses. Theosophy teaches that there are really seven, or even ten, senses, though all are specializations of the interior and unifying source of them all. Each of the seven root-races brings into full functional activity one of the seven senses, though it also manifests, very imperfectly, the as yet undeveloped senses. The first root-race evolved the sense of hearing, the second touch, the third sight, the fourth taste, and the fifth smell. The reason our ears can hear eleven octaves of sound while our eyes can see only one octave of light is because the sense of hearing was developed at a far earlier stage of our evolution. The sixth and seventh root-races will evolve two further senses with their appropriate organs. ‘Hunches’ are a forerunner of the sixth sense, and intuition is a forerunner of the seventh sense.
The first race had no speech, and indeed did not need it since it lived in a kind of daydream. The second race had a sound-language – chant-like sounds, largely onomatopoeic, composed of vowels alone, signifying danger, pleasure, etc. In the early part of the third race the noises became a sort of language, though it was only a slight improvement on the sounds in nature. Towards its end the third race developed monosyllabic speech. Before that they communicated through thought transference, though thought was initially very little developed in nascent physical mankind. The fourth race developed agglutinative languages, while the fifth developed inflectional languages.
Monkeys and apes
The lower simians, the monkeys, arose from interbreeding between a mindless or unselfconscious stock of the third root-race and a high beast stock, probably during the Jurassic period of the Mesozoic. The anthropoid apes resulted from interbreeding between an unprogressed Atlantean stock and the simian descendants of the earlier miscegenations, towards the end of the fourth root-race, in the Miocene epoch.
The ‘humans’ responsible for the acts which gave rise to the monkeys were instinctual and devoid of selfconsciousness and hence the miscegenation was not a crime. The distance between the ‘humans’ and animals concerned was not yet very great and hence fertile unions were possible. The Atlanteans who later repeated the act were aware of what they were doing and the act was therefore one of intentional bestiality. Even then, humans and animals were not far enough apart to prevent a fertile union.
In far past geological times both these simian stocks resembled their human half-parents in much fuller measure than do their present-day descendants, the living monkeys and apes. The earlier stocks were much nearer in time to the dominant human influence in their heredity, while the living simians show the effects of specialization away from that influence over the intervening millions of years.
G. de Purucker says that the original apes were looked upon askance by the more evolved humans of that time but were tolerated because they had glimmerings of our active minds. They were virtually thinking entities of a lower type.
The most human of these apes died out, partly because the Atlanteans, realizing the sin of their own less evolved men, made vigorous war upon them, wars of extermination; and also because the milieu, the surroundings, were not conducive to the continuance of this partly-human partly-animal race. Only the least progressed of the apes were allowed to live by the Atlanteans; and the apes today are [their] descendants ... (Studies in Occult Philosophy, 123)
The egos which took embodiment in the original monkeys and apes were those which had not quite reached the human stage. The apes are destined to become human beings of a low grade before the end of this round, and again in the fifth round. This does not mean that ape bodies will evolve into human bodies, but that the monads currently tenanting ape bodies will take on bodies among the lowest human stocks. The rest of the animals will gradually die out as progress up the ascending arc continues, and will reappear in the next manvantara.
Thus humans and apes did indeed have a common ancestor – but that common ancestor was man himself, in his earlier, more primitive form. The darwinian ape-ancestry theory is contradicted by abundant evidence – in the form of stone tools, incised bones, and skeletal remains – showing that human beings existed in the Pliocene, the Miocene, and even in early Tertiary times, millions of years before our supposed apelike ancestors are thought to have appeared. Nowadays, this evidence is either ignored or dismissed out of hand. (See SD 2:10, 675, 678, 686, 714fn, 740; The ape-ancestry myth, section 3.)
A comparison of the skeletal and muscular features of living apes and humans shows that apes have developed a more complex and specialized structure, while humans have preserved a primitive mammalian simplicity, with only the cerebrospinal system, necessary for the manifestation of selfconscious intelligence, being highly developed. As for the more primitive hominid fossils that have been discovered, rather than being our direct ancestors, they may have existed alongside advanced civilizations (some of them on now submerged islands and continents), just as civilized and primitive peoples coexist today.
Fifth, sixth, and seventh root-races
The fifth, Aryan or Indo-European humanity became a distinct root-race about one million years ago in Central Asia, and like all major new races, received guidance from divine instructors. Since then, a series of migrations have taken place, and many civilizations have come and gone. We are now approaching the middle of the fifth race.
The European stock of races, with their highly developed physical intellectuality, is currently in its kali-yuga or dark age. This age of rapid material progress will last for another 427,000 years. The European races have been steadily rising since the downfall of the Roman Empire, and will continue to do so, with various smaller shocks, for another 6-8000 years. There will then be a rapid descent leading to a great European catastrophe of nature in about 16,000 years. This period will see the submersion of the British Isles, most of France, Holland, part of Spain, and much of Italy, and will be preceded by premonitory signs, such as slow subsidence of the coast and major earthquakes.
The seeds of the sixth root-race are already being sown, largely in the Americas, and will become fairly numerous towards the end of our kali-yuga. Hermaphroditism will again appear, but in a more refined form. Children will be produced by kriyashakti, i.e. by will and imagination – passively in the sixth race, and consciously and actively in the seventh. The flesh of the sixth root-race will be very tender and soft, and that of the seventh root-race will be almost translucent. These races will be smaller than us in size, but greater in intellect and spirituality.
Earlier and later rounds
The evolution of the first race of the fourth round recapitulated the first round, the second race the second round, and the third race the third round. Likewise, the fifth, sixth, and seventh races will be a faint foreshadowing of evolution in the fifth, sixth, and seventh rounds.
During the first round all the classes of monads helped to build the foundations of the globes, under the guidance of the dhyani-chohanic kingdoms. The kingdoms were largely undifferentiated initially. In a sense, the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms are the unconscious ‘off-throwings’ of primeval humanity, just as humans are the offspring of the gods. The mineral kingdom separated off in the first round, and first plants and submammalian creatures in the next two rounds. The earliest mammals appeared at the end of the third round.
Even during the first round there was organized intelligence on earth, and not merely mindless entities. In addition to the dhyani-chohanic kingdoms, there were thinking human beings, though their bodies may have been quite different from those we have now. They were few to start with, but increased in number in the succeeding rounds. There was a time in the third round corresponding to the descent of the manasaputras in the fourth round, a time corresponding to the arrival of sex on earth, and a time corresponding to the disappearance of sex later in this round.
The fifth round will see the full development of manas (mind), the sixth of buddhi (intuitive wisdom), and the seventh of atman (the inner divinity). If we make the grade successfully, we shall become buddhas at the end of the sixth round, and dhyani-chohans at the end of the seventh. We shall then have an ovoid form, of refined spiritual substance, like a garment of dazzling light. At the end of the planetary manvantara, the lower principles of the earth chain will die and disintegrate, and a long pralaya or planetary rest period will ensue. After this period of nirvana, we shall become the guides of the humanity and lower entities on the next embodiment of the earth chain.
Before the last pralaya, our monads had been evolving on the former embodiment of the earth, which is now our moon. On the moon chain, our present lower human monads were animal monads. At the end of the seventh round of evolution on the earth-chain, our lower human monads will have become higher human monads (manasic or manasaputric monads), and will embody in the lowest of the dhyani-chohanic kingdoms on the following embodiment of the earth-chain. In future manvantaras they will become spiritual monads and finally divine monads. They will then have completed the evolutionary journey from unselfconscious god-spark to selfconscious god – but only as regards our earth chain. In the far distant future, our divine monads will pursue a similar evolutionary pilgrimage on other planetary chains, in other solar systems, other galaxies, etc., for in the boundless fields of infinitude there are always new worlds of experience in which to become selfconscious masters of life.
H.P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, esp. vol. 2, part 1
G. de Purucker, The Esoteric Tradition, 304-39, 466-9, 1044-50
G. de Purucker, Man in Evolution, 79-116, 140-52, 198-204, 231-46
G. de Purucker, Fundamentals of the Esoteric Philosophy, 408-10
G. de Purucker, Studies in Occult Philosophy, 87-101, 120-8, 160-6, 183-96, 260-2, 282-4, 287, 333-6
G. de Purucker, Fountain-Source of Occultism, 163-8, 240-2, 350-60
Dialogues of G. de Purucker, 1:75, 93-5; 2:194-9, 235-47, 290-2; 3:48-9, 173-90, 361-2, 408-15, 437-40
by David Pratt. May 1999. Last revised: Jul 2012.
Rounds and manvantaras: an outline
Geochronology: theosophy and science
Origin of mind
Human origins: the ape-ancestry myth
Evolution and design